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 Главната страница » ОКЕАН - МОРСКИ ФОРУМ » Съвременен търговски и граждански флот
Underwater Habitat
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yautja


Регистриран на: 16 Дек 2005
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МнениеПуснато на: Съб 02 Юни 2007, 10:48    Заглавие:  Underwater Habitat  

Здравейте колеги,

Много ми се ще, и се надявам, това да е темата дето да се обсъждат подобен тип подводни съоражения и всичко свързано с тях. Ще е малко да се рече, че съм прелюбопитен на тази тема, а се надявам и сред тукашните обитатели да има такива.

Бях замислил да започна с актуалното- NEEMO , много интересен проект на НАСА. Наели са Aquarius от NOAA и вече бая мисии са отметнали. Може да се наблюдава работата он-лайн чрез web-камери, които са разположени покрай лабораторията. Те работят само по време на мисиите.
Както и да е, за това по-натам. Преди това имам малко нужда от помощ от страна на по-запознатите. Става въпрос за една наша подобна....ммм експедиция ли, как да го нарека..... някъде през 60-те.
Са, мога да се бъркам грубо, ама преди години в едно списание четох за това, и мисля, че ставаше въпрос за двама българи- лекар и военен (ако не се бъркам), които са имали престой от няколко дни в подводна лаборатория. Самата лаборатория (може да е леко пресилено определението), по спомен, е представлявала пригодена за тази цел ж.п. цистерна + голям бетонен блок за баласт.
Моля, ако някой има някакво инфо да сподели, щото аз не мога да си намеря литературата, трети ден разнищвам къщата и е наближило да ме изгонят от дома. Мислех, че е в някой от алманасите "ФАР" (имам три броя, за '75, '76 и '79 година), ама не е. Явно съм се объркал щото там са описани други едни такива работи- "Черномор-Шелф", които са на по-професионална основа и в съдружие със СССР. Ако иската може и за тях да поговориме?
А иначе, за въпросната експедиция, за която споменах, ми е останало в главата, че името и започва с "Х".... Хеброс ли беше, Хемус ли беше, (а айде не се смейте).

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yautja


Регистриран на: 16 Дек 2005
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МнениеПуснато на: Съб 02 Юни 2007, 11:02    Заглавие:  

Малко снимки от последната експедиция- NEEMO 12 :

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Това е Scuttle. Официално- ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle)

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yautja


Регистриран на: 16 Дек 2005
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МнениеПуснато на: Съб 02 Юни 2007, 11:15    Заглавие:  

Още фотоси:

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Последната снимка е култова за мене. Осъществена е връзка между екипажите на Международната космическа станция и Aquarius- датата е 17 Maй 2007. По това време на МКС е Експедиция 15, т.е. настоящата.

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yautja


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МнениеПуснато на: Съб 02 Юни 2007, 14:11    Заглавие:  

По-подробно за AQUARIUS


AQUARIUS: AMERICAN'S INNERSPACE STATION

About Aquarius

Aquarius is an underwater laboratory and home to scientists for missions up to 10 days long, but to call Aquarius a home is like calling
the space shuttle Discovery a mode of transportation. Aquarius is made to withstand the pressure of ocean depths to 120 feet deep.
Presently, Aquarius is located in a sand patch adjacent to deep coral reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, at depth of
63 feet. The laboratory is attached to a baseplate that positions the underwater habitat (underwater laboratories are also called habitats)
about 13 feet off the bottom. This means that the working depth of those inside the laboratory is about 50 feet deep. Located inside
the 81-ton, 43 x 20 x 16.5 - foot underwater laboratory are all the comforts of home: six bunks, a shower and toilet, instant hot water,
a microwave, trash compactor, and a refrigerator - even air conditioning and computers linked back to the shore base, located in Key
Largo, by wireless telemetry! The images and links seen below will give you an idea of exactly where Aquarius and the shore base
are located.

Introduction

As the International Space Station orbits earth in outer space, it may surprise you to learn that America also operates an "inner
space" station called Aquarius , the world's only undersea laboratory dedicated to marine science and education. Owned by the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and managed by the University of North Carolina at Wilmington
(UNCW), Aquarius operates 4.5 kms offshore of Key Largo, Florida. The underwater laboratory is deployed next to deep coral reefs,
20 meters beneath the surface. As in its outer space counterpart, "aquanauts" explore and investigate an environment hostile to
human habitation. Aquarius provides life support systems that allow scientists to live and work underwater, in reasonably comfortable
living quarters, with sophisticated research capabilities. Aquarius is a valuable national asset that advances our understanding of the
ocean and its resources. The underwater laboratory also provides a unique window into our oceans, where special events and media
access help to capture the attention and imagination of students and the public, worldwide.

A short history of living in the sea

In the brief history of undersea laboratories (also known as "habitats"), 65 separate programs operated during the last four decades
(Koblick and Miller, 1995), including Jacques Cousteau's famous Conshelf project and American programs such as Tektite, Hydrolab,
and the US Navy's Sealab Program, managed by Dr. George F. Bond. The early days focused on human physiology; the Navy's
Genesis Program (1957 - 1962) set standards that defined the birth of saturation diving and led to the SeaLab programs (Bond
and Siteri 1993, Barth 2000). The technical achievements of the Genesis Program and SeaLab revolutionized the commercial dive
industry. However, the science community was slow to adopt saturation diving techniques. Most underwater habitats were best
described as projects, rather than programs. Science objectives were not always well defined, operations and administration
sometimes faltered, and funding was not sustained. Still, significant advances were made and the success of the Aquarius program
is built on the legacy of these past efforts. The longest running program, in terms of missions conducted, was Hydrolab.
Approximately 180 Hydrolab missions were conducted in the Bahamas (100 missions in the early to mid 1970s) and St. Croix,
USVI (80 missions from 1977 to 1985). Aquarius is the second longest running program, and currently the only underwater
laboratory dedicated to science operating in the world. Over 50 missions have already been completed using Aquarius
(as of August 2000).

NOAA's and UNCW's Aquarius program

Aquarius was originally conceived and funded by NOAA's National Undersea Research Program (NURP) in the mid 1980s.
The underwater laboratory was built by Victoria Machine Works in 1986-87. Initial deployment was in the U.S. Virgin Islands
where 13 missions were conducted before Hurricane Hugo struck in 1989, and devastated St. Croix. Aquarius was retrieved
from the seafloor in 1990 and was moved to North Carolina where it was refurbished under the direction of the University of
North Carolina at Wilmington (UNCW). In 1993, the laboratory was redeployed in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,
and supported 22 missions during the next three years. In 1996, Aquarius was recovered, refurbished and "re-invented" in
partnership with UNCW, NOAA, and Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution. Many improvements were made to the system
including construction of a semi-autonomous life support buoy that replaced a 17 by 34-meter life support barge. Aquarius was
redeployed in 1997 (Figure 2: low res/high res) and operations resumed in 1998. Since then, Aquarius has supported over 20
missions and has a full mission schedule well into 2001. NOAA continues to be the primary source of funding for the program.

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The Cost of Aquarius Exclamation

The cost of operating Aquarius is between $1.3 and $1.5 million a year. This translates to an operating cost estimated at about $10,000 per day (total cost of program divided by the number of saturation days), which is a higher day rate than surface-based diving programs. However, a 10 day Aquarius mission would take more than 60 days if conducted using surface-based technology, and few scientists have the time to spend months in the field, when a 10 day Aquarius mission can be used to accomplish the same goals. This assumes that the work could even be conducted from the surface, which many times is not the case because Aquarius provides unique laboratory capabilities (not available using boats). Significantly, the conversion data from Aquarius to surface-based diving assumes an unreasonably rigorous (and risky) dive schedule and no weather delays. If expenses are compared on a per project basis, a 10 day Aquarius mission costs about $40,000 more than a 60 day surface-based program - assuming the work could even be conducted from the surface, which in many cases is not possible. Additionally, Aquarius provides significant media access and public outreach capabilities that are not possible in conventional dive operations, and while the program's science mission is paramount these other activities are valuable too. \Additional information about the cost of operating Aquarius is presented in: The Aquarius underwater laboratory: America's inner space station.

Даже не мога да повярвам колко е евтина поддръжката на тая хубавиня! Колко ли ще излезне в нашето море да държиме подобно нещо? Със сигурност по-малко. Друг е въпроса от къде ще се вземе.

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yautja


Регистриран на: 16 Дек 2005
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МнениеПуснато на: Съб 02 Юни 2007, 14:16    Заглавие:  

Продължение:

INSIDE AQUARIUS

What is Aquarius made of?

The external envelope (main body) of Aquarius is made of 3/4" thick steel. This is the pressure hull that divides the entry lock and main lock. A 3/8" thick layer of insulation is located on the outer hull of Aquarius.Aquarius consists of three main compartments: main lock, entry lock and wet porch. The two locks are part of the 33 foot long, 9 foot diameter steel tube. The wet porch is a 7 foot long x 10 foot wide by 8 foot high steel box. They connect together by watertight doors. The wet porch is open to the sea through its floor.

What things are taken into consideration when building such a structure?

First, where will the underwater laboratory operate? Water depth determines the thickness of the walls and viewports,
the type of fittings for connections and plumbing, and much more. Depth also determines what kind of breathing gas
system is required. Most people are surprised to learn that you can only breathe normal air down to a certain depth
before it becomes toxic. Both nitrogen and oxygen cause problems when the pressure gets too high.

Aquarius consists of more systems them just the underwater laboratory on the bottom. The habitat itself, when full of air,
floats! Therefore, it is attached to a 120 ton baseplate that serves to anchor it to the bottom. There is also a buoy,
called the LSB (Life Support Buoy, that is moored above Aquarius. The LSB contains generators (for power) and
compressors (for air). The buoy is connected to the habitat by an umbilical - a set of wires and hoses wrapped together
in aspecial protective cover. The buoy also has radios that can send signals from Aquarius to the mission control - over
nine miles away in Key Largo, Florida.

Another important consideration is related to want you want to accomplish using an underwater laboratory. In other words,
why build an underwater habitat? In the past forty years, over sixty underwater laboratories were built, some were
larger and some were smaller than Aquarius. Aquarius was designed to be more than just an underwater habitat for
living. It is an underwater laboratory with wet and dry lab space, electrical and computer capabilities, and a comfortable
iving space for six people that allows the scientists to focus on their research. The Aquarius program is less about what
happens inside the underwater laboratory. Instead, the value of Aquarius is defined by the work scientists do outside
Aquarius, on the reef and in the surrounding ocean.

The Aquarius System

The fully equipped underwater laboratory includes several components. The Aquarius "habitat" module is an 82-ton
double-lock pressure vessel that measures approximately 14-meters long by 3-meters in diameter. Scientists live and
work inside the habitat when they are not on excursions, diving outside on the reefs. Entry is through the 20-m3 wet porch,
which contains an open moon pool, dive equipment storage areas, and hot water heater and shower. There are two main
compartments in the Aquarius module. The 14-m3 "entry lock," contains bench space for computers and experiments,
power equipment, life support controls, small viewports and bathroom facilities. The largest living space is the 40-m3
"main lock." It includes berths for the six-person crew, computer work stations, two large viewports, kitchen facilities that
include a microwave, instant hot water dispenser, refrigerator, sink, and dining and work areas (Figure 4: low res/high res).
The main lock also contains life support controls, so both the entry and main locks can be independently pressurized.
The Aquarius baseplate is a 116-ton structure that provides a stable and level support base for the habitat. Each of
the four legs contains 25 tons of lead ballast. The legs have seven feet of adjustment for leveling in variable seafloor
terrain through the use of hydraulically-driven screw jacks. The habitat and baseplate were designed to survive severe
storm conditions and have successfully weathered hurricanes in both the Caribbean and Florida.
The Life Support Buoy (LSB) is a 10-meter diameter buoy (Figure 5: low res/high res) that was provided by NOAA's
National Data Buoy Center. The LSB is maintained above Aquarius on a five-point mooring using 2 and 5/8 inch diameter
double-braided nylon lines connected to approximately 1.5-meter diameter spring buoys. Mooring plates were installed
with anchor bolts grouted 1.2-meters into the seafloor. The LSB includes a communication tower and over 70-square meters
of inside work space. Inside are two diesel-powered 40 kW generators, two 18.7 cfm air compressors, VHF radios, a cell
phone, and a microwave broadcasting system. The LSB is linked to Aquarius by a three-inch diameter 42-meter unitized
umbilical, which contains hoses that supply air from the compressors and oxygen from storage flasks, power lines from the
generators, and 2 coaxial cables and 12 twisted pair wires for data and communications. The microwave telemetry system
provides reliable audio, video, and data transmission between Aquarius and shore using "Wave Wireless Networking."
Wave Wireless is a telecommunications and data communications manufacturer, and the specific system used is their
SPEEDLAN 10ptp wireless link. The SPEEDLAN 10ptp is a 10-Mbps wireless point-to-point bridge that provides a
secure wireless connection between Aquarius, the LSB, and shore. System upgrades are planned to increase
bandwidth for improved video and voice communications that will support new broadcast and education programs.

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The Length of an Aquarius Mission

Aquarius missions typically last 10 days. We conduct shorter missions at the start of the year for training and to test systems. The longest missions in Aquarius are 14 days, but this doesn't happen too often. We are talking about a special project next year that might last 30 days. Interestingly, and this relates to the technique of saturation diving that we support, once you are saturated it doesn't matter if you stay 1 day, a week, or a month - the decompression time remains the same. A brief explanation of saturation diving is presented in the article: "How an Underwater Habitat Benefits Marine Science." Also, take a look at the pressure lesson plan to learn more about saturation diving. At the end of missions aquanauts decompress inside Aquarius, where pressure is slowly brought back to one atmosphere (or surface pressure) from the operating depth of about 50 feet - and it takes over 17 hours. Aquanauts then "lock-out" and swim to the surface. People sometimes think that Aquarius is brought to the surface during decompression, but it stays on the bottom; it's the pressure inside Aquarius that is change.

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yautja


Регистриран на: 16 Дек 2005
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МнениеПуснато на: Съб 02 Юни 2007, 14:22    Заглавие:  

Продължение:

AQUARIUS UNDERWATER

The advantages of saturation diving for scientists

Aquarius scientists escape the limitations of conventional surface-based scuba diving through the use of a special technique
called saturation diving. The most serious threat divers face when working underwater is related to "decompression sickness,
" also known as "the bends." Decompression sickness is caused by bubbles that form in the blood and tissues when divers
stay down too longat a given depth, then ascend to the surface too fast. The bubbles get caught in joints and vessels, causing
many symptoms that can include pain, paralysis, and ultimately even death. Instead of coming to the surface after diving,
scientists who use Aquarius return directly to the undersea laboratory. As long as the Aquanauts don't go back to the surface
they can use special dive tables to greatly increase their bottom time - to nearly ten times over what they typically have using
conventional surface-based diving techniques. Without Aquarius, researchers are forced to make multiple dives of short
duration from the surface, which also leaves them vulnerable to the complications of daily boat trips, unpredictable weather,
difficulties setting up seafloor experiments that requirepower and computers from the surface, and frequent deep dives that
increase the likelihood of getting the bends. At the end of each mission, aquanauts go through a 17-hour "decompression,
" where the pressure inside Aquarius is slowly reduced from ambient (the pressure at the working depth of Aquarius is 2.5
times surface pressure, or nearly 44 pounds per square inch) back to surface pressure (14.7 pounds per square inch).
At the end of decompression the aquanauts "blow down" back to ambient depth in the entry lock, are met by ascent divers
in the wet porch, and are escorted to the surface where they are picked up by boats and returned to shore.

Additional advantages provided by the Aquarius saturation system include the sophisticated power and communication
capabilities of the habitat. Experiments can be set up on the reef similar to what might be accomplished back at a shore-
based laboratory bench. A recent mission powered high resolution infrared video cameras to record coral feeding biology,
with recording decks inside Aquarius. Aquarius also provided power for the red lights to prevent unusual concentrations of
plankton from developing. Further, plankton pumps were deployed at multiple depths in the water column, and divers out on
the reef communicated with scientists back in the habitat to coordinate sampling and collecting schedules. Scientists also have
email, telephone, and video conferencing capability to anywhere in the world. During another recent mission, a shore-based
scientist had a complete mock-up of gear deployed from Aquarius, and was able to trouble shoot and solve equipment
problems during the mission using data transmitted in real-time from Aquarius.

Scientists who study coral reefs need to work underwater. But bottom time is not the only limitation, cost is also important.
The cost of running Aquarius compared to surface-based operations provides an interesting contrast. Conducting research
on or under the ocean is expensive. Bottom time conversions from saturation missions to surface-based programs suggest
that it would take at least 60 -70 days to match the same bottom time as a ten-day saturation mission. Sixty days in the field
with a team of four divers can approach $70,000 ($900/day for a boat and dive support, $120 day per diem for four
people, and $120/day hotel expenses for two rooms). Further, at the depths worked from Aquarius, surface-based diving
is more rigorous than saturation diving. On a day-to-day basis, four divers could not possibly work more than 6 days without
at least one day off, and over the course of several weeks additional time off is necessary. Larger dive teams could get
around this problem, but costs would also increase. Repetitive deep diving schedules also expose divers to greater risk
of decompression sickness than saturation diving.

So, how does Aquarius compare? One way to draw a comparison is to contrast the daily cost of Aquarius operations
with the above surface-based cost estimates - assuming that the work could even be conducted from the surface, which in
many cases is not possible. Ten days in Aquarius costs $100,000, or about $30,000 more than a surface-based project.
This is not insignificant. However, few academic scientists have 60 days available to spend in the field, so getting a lot of
work done in a short amount of time is another beneficial aspect of the Aquarius program. Finally, Aquarius provides
significant media access and public outreach capabilities that are not possible in conventional dive operations, and while
the program's science mission is paramount these other activities are also valuable.

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AQUARIUS LOCATION


Location of Aquarius at Conch Reef, including work sites and instrument deployments

Aquarius is located at Conch Reef, approximately nine miles south of Key Largo, in the Florida Keys. Aquarius is located in a sand
patch approximately 63 feet deep that is surrounded by spur and groove coral formations. Conch Reef is loosely described as
a bank reef, with a shallow platform inshore and several deep reef formations found to depths of approximately 115 feet. The
seaward spur and groove formations are located a relatively long distance from the shallow reef flats and appear to be antecedent
formations with thin Holocene coral cover. A high resolution bathymetric map of the site is available. A good general description of
reefs in Florida was compiled by Jaap (1984) and geological considerations are available in Shinn et al. (1989). Aronson et al.
(1994) provides benthic community descriptions of Conch Reef and other sites in the upper Keys. A summary of research
supported by the Center in Florida is available.

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MISSION CONTROL CENTRE

A shore-based Mission Control center is located in Key Largo, approximately 12 kilometers from Aquarius, and includes a specially designed "watch desk" with computers and communication equipment linked to Aquarius via wireless telemetry. Also located on shore are: docks for the program's boats; office space; storage and work rooms for dive gear and equipment; an electronics shop; a six-person, dual-lock decompression chamber for emergency evacuation of Aquarius; two laboratories; and living accommodations for on-duty staff and visiting scientists.

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Приказка! Въобще една добре организирана работа. Само мога да завиждам на работещите по тоя проект.

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yautja


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МнениеПуснато на: Пон 04 Юни 2007, 17:08    Заглавие:  

Списък с мисиите за тази година (за Aquarius ).

Утре ще започне третата за тази година мисия- Mission 3 — NURC/Navy Saturation Development Mission 1.

Интересно е дали он-лайн камерите ще работят (би трябвало по време на мисия).

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Preslav
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МнениеПуснато на: Пон 04 Юни 2007, 17:13    Заглавие:  

Браво - чудно хубава тема! Ще се запозная подробно и тея дни ще пусна нещо и аз!
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yautja


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МнениеПуснато на: Чет 07 Юни 2007, 21:22    Заглавие:  

Ами в момента (22:20) ако се включите он-лайн към някоя от камерите на "Red Diver" или "Green Diver" ще има какво да видите интересно. Явно взимат проби от коралите (?), използват интересни инструменти.
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